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Weed Control and Crop Rotation: Managing Your Small-Scale Grain

The following is an excerpt from Small-Scale Grain Raising: An Organic Guide to Growing, Processing, and Using Nutritious Whole Grains for Home Gardeners and Local Farmers by Gene Logsdon. It has been adapted for the Web.

The worst problem in raising wheat organically is weed control. Because wheat is customarily planted “solid” rather than in rows, you can’t easily weed it, so without very good management, you can get too many weeds. Chemical farmers spray herbicides, which control most weeds in wheat fairly easily, except for a few new exotic weeds that appear to be immune.

Rotations help to avoid some weeds. In organic farming the crop before wheat should always be a row crop that has been cultivated intensively for weed control. That way you at least start off ahead of the weeds. Then, where wheat is sown in the fall after most weeds quit growing, the crop gets a good jump on weeds, makes a good stand, and is off and growing in the spring, choking out some of the weeds that try to come up later.

But don’t plant solid-stand wheat in a field that has been full of weeds the preceding year unless you use herbicides. If you are organic and growing only a small plot, it’s better to plant your wheat in rows and cultivate it like the Chinese do. American farmers may laugh at you, but the Chinese have forgotten more about raising food than we yet know.

In your rotation of crops, either in the field or in the garden, wheat is a good crop in which to plant clover for nitrogen fixation and as a green manure. The wheat in the spring is growing on a fairly well-cultivated soil surface. The clover seed falls on rather bare land, even though the wheat is growing there, and will sprout and grow readily. The wheat then acts as a “nurse” crop for the legume, which comes on to heavy growth after the wheat is harvested.

Since corn should be the first crop to follow the clover, the basis of your organic-grain rotation will be either wheat, clover, field corn, and back to wheat, or wheat, clover, sweet corn, back to wheat. Since it is good to follow corn with another nitrogen-fixing legume, soybeans, peas, snap beans, or lima beans are fine, making a rotation of wheat, clover, corn, beans, and back to wheat. Potatoes, wheat, clover, back to potatoes is an excellent rotation where potatoes are a main crop. A five-year garden rotation could be: wheat, clover, sweet corn, peas, and beans double-cropped to fall vegetables, tomatoes, then back to wheat. But almost any variation will work well if you maintain the basic wheat-legume-corn rotation and don’t follow two vegetables of the same kind or family in successive years.


A Meditation on Garden Weeding

In this excerpt from The Tao of Vegetable Gardening, author Carol Deppe reflects on her time spent daily in the garden and how her actions can often transcend the moment, or the task, at hand. As Carol notes, “On a good gardening day there is nothing better. On a good gardening day there is not […] Read More

Food & Drink Sale! Save 35% on all Food & Drink books through August 1st

Here at Chelsea Green Publishing, we believe that it matters where our food comes from and how it is grown because a healthy food system is key to ensuring a resilient, sustainable, and healthy future for all of us. We’ve put ALL ourfood & drink books on sale for 35% off — but hurry it […] Read More

How Carbon Farming Can Save the Planet

Carbon farming alone is not enough to avoid catastrophic climate change, but coupled with new economic priorities, a massive switch to clean energy, and big changes to much of the rest of the way our societies work, it offers a pathway out of destruction and a route to hope.Along the way carbon farming can also […] Read More

Dear Farmers: Get Grazing! (And, Here’s How)

In her new book, The Art of Science and Grazing, nationally known grazing consultant Sarah Flack identifies the key principles and practices necessary for farmers to design, and manage, successful grazing systems.This book is an essential guide for ruminant farmers who want to create grazing systems that meet the needs of their livestock, pasture plants, […] Read More

Gaia’s Garden Around the Globe

Recently, a Turkish publisher released their edition of Gaia’s Garden by Toby Hemenway, one of our perennial bestsellers—and one of the bestselling permaculture books of the past decade.This means that Gaia’s Garden has now been published in six languages— Italian, French, Hungarian, Latvian, Korean, and Turkish. Gaia’s Garden is in great company, as this post […] Read More
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